Uche Eseosa Ekhator-Mobayode, Vasco Molini, Grace Namugayi, Valerio Leone Sciabolazza (2023), “Fragility, Livelihoods, and Migration Dynamics”, in H. R. Irhiam, M. G. Schaeffer, K. Watanabe (eds.), “The Long Road to Inclusive Institutions in Libya: A Sourcebook of Challenges and Needs”, International Development in Focus, World Bank Group, Chapter 10, 163-177.

The authors provide that Libyan households face four interrelated shocks that adversely affect the welfare of the population. These shocks include (1) protracted conflict; (2) the reduction of reliable import routes; (3) food and commodities crises exacerbated by the exchange rate devaluation, which have made essential goods prohibitively expensive; and (4) the COVID-19 pandemic, which has slowed economic activity and had devastating effects on the informal labor economy. The pandemic has exacerbated food insecurity. The increase in prices is especially acute in the Southern parts of the country, where the distance from the coast adds logistical and cargo costs to the price of products.